A civil engineering student mentioned that surprise with respect to her friends: “They were quite surprised,” I54, L.99. From this line of argumentation, it is essential to investigate methods and implementations of support that are not detrimental to a students' self-concept. Gender Concepts and Definitions. Five hundred and sixty seven female university students in STEM fields participated in Germany. Wang, M.-T., Degol, J., and Ye, F. (2015). West, S. G., Finch, J. F., and Curran, P. J. With respect to school factors, 26 students had three favorite subjects from STEM at school, 129 students two, 121 just one, while 20 had favorite non-STEM subjects (M = 1.54). Good grades, although they are seen as a prerequisite for a STEM-LPF course of study (see Ihsen, 2009), are not sufficient to support a self-concept necessary for females to choose STEM-LPF subjects. There was a weak relationship between the latent factor family and the self-concept of students (β = −0.149, p = 0.053). This may be implemented e.g., via support for a student's decision about what to study (see Ertl et al., 2014). The role of parental beliefs in the development of interest and importance value of mathematics and literacy from Grade 7 to Grade 9. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. With respect to the impact of stereotypes, students mentioned that they were taking an untypical career path and that their social environment was surprised by this kind of career choice. Such exploration serves to broaden understanding of how women's gender identity constructs may connect to each other as well as to women's ethnic identity. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. In contrast, teachers supporting their female students have the intention that they make further progress in STEM subjects. Their parents' professions. 92, 144–151. In a study by Kiefer and Shih (2006), students were especially receptive to teacher feedback that was associated with gender stereotypes. However, due to a lack of research in the field, we cannot provide hypotheses about its strength within the context of the ambiguous effects of school and family factors. The academic self-concept is a key variable in explaining learning and motivation in specific academic domains. It would have been desirable to research these issues in a longitudinal design in an effort to achieve greater insight into causal relations and the development process of stereotypes, interests, achievements, and the individuals' self-concepts. Zürich: Rüegger Verlag. Int. (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.08.003, Schuster, C., and Martiny, S. E. (2017). All STEM fields are not created equal: people and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields. Second, STEM support in school was operationalized by teachers' and school activities that facilitated the interest in STEM (e.g., “Were there activities in secondary school that encouraged your interest in STEM?” These answers were also summed up and mapped onto a range between 0 and 5) with higher values indicating more support. For example, parents tend to regard daughters as being less talented in mathematics and science and reinforce dysfunctional attribution patterns as a result (Dresel et al., 2007). This group of female STEM-LPF students was selected because it could be expected that they are less prone to stereotypes after they have chosen what can be seen as a less-than-typical career path. Yet, some students also described that their parents were doubtful about their ability for pursuing a STEM career (“My dad told me afterwards that he hadn't thought that this is the right thing for me […] because I have an already an understanding for logical relations but I have not an all-embracing one,” I54, L.105ff.) 12, 106–117. Curr. The most common agents of gender socialization—in other words, the people who influence the process—are parents, teachers, schools, and the media. Self-esteem 18. Dickhäuser, O., and Meyer, W.-U. Depending on the macro system and its values, stereotypes about professions, or subjects may vary among nations or cultures (see Nosek et al., 2009; Else-Quest et al., 2010). Thus, also the interview data highlights that students are aware that they are studying an untypical subject and name surprise of their friends about their study choice, obstacles for working in the untypical field, as well as missing role models. Even if the term is used internationally, there are particularly differences about the definition of the science part. Owens and Massey (2011) describe two mechanisms that explain why stereotype threat occurs. 3. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute achievements of girls to diligence instead of talent (see Kessels, 2015). Front. Such self-assessments may belong to two frames of reference (Rost et al., 2005): The external frame of reference is guided by a social comparison of one's own achievements with those of peers. 45, 477–503. (2008). These were classified according to whether they were from the field of STEM (coded as STEM/not STEM). (2015). This resulted in a final questionnaire in an English language version, which was translated into further five national languages including German. 6:189. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00189, Tiedemann, J. The model fit indices suggest a good fit of the latent regression analysis model (χ2/df = 1.422; CFI = 0.979; RMSEA = 0.038; SRMR = 0.049). (2010). Teacher stereotypes, e.g., teachers encouraging boys to choose STEM subjects more strongly than girls, can be seen as a specific occurrence of the stereotype threat with the respective consequences (e.g., Good et al., 2008; Owens and Massey, 2011). It is formed through experience and interpretations of one's environment as it regards feelings of self-confidence, competence, and ability. Coaching- und Mentorenprogramme in der Studien- und Berufsorientierung,” in Berufsorientierung. This effect may be explained by expectancy-value theory in how students with a higher academic self-concept in a domain have higher expectations regarding their chances for successful outcomes and as a result have a higher motivation to invest time and effort into learning activities in this domain (see Eccles et al., 1983; Eccles and Wang, 2016). Against this background, the present study investigates how stereotypes may explain female university students' self-concept in STEM. Motivation und Handeln, 2nd Edn. This result might also be explained by the “doing gender” approach: When giving specific support to females in STEM, their gender will be overemphasized, evoking a stronger identification with the stereotyped group of females in STEM (see Faulstich-Wieland et al., 2008). Similar results were found in the PISA studies (OECD, 2015). The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence. Good Practice Guidelines - Part II: Facilitation Methods. 3. (2006). Heider, F. (1958). Person. Noting concerns with Erikson's (1963) placement of identity as a precursor to intimacy, concerns that are widely acknowledged (Chodorow, 1978; Gilligan, 1982; Josselson, 1973; Marcia & Friedman, 1970; Williams, 1977), Downing and Roush instead saw their model as congruent with Kegan's (1982) developmental model and with Rebecca, Hefner, and Oleshansky's (1976) sex role transcendence theory. Regression analyses are specified at the latent level and are corrected for measurement error at the level of the independent and dependent variables. Statistics anxiety and performance: blessings in disguise. “Self-concept in learning: reciprocal effects model between academic self-concept and academic achievement,” in Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning, ed S. Järvela (Amsterdam: Elsevier), 191–197. Sci. Most students showed a very positive self-concept (M = 4.58; the means described in the following relate to a scale of 1–5, with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest value). Academic journal article Gender differences in overall self-evaluation and in specific dimensions of self-concept were examined in primarily White Caucasian college and high school students. OECD (2016). These kinds of long-term influences by parents and teachers may have a significant influence over the years not only on motivation and achievement but regarding career choices as well (Bleeker and Jacobs, 2004). The model shows that the three indicators of stereotypes about interests (β = 0.274), stereotypes about ability (β = 0.590), and stereotypes about conformance (β = 0.379) are positively related to the factor stereotypes. Organ. Furthermore, one student reported her mother encouraging her to re-think her career decision for STEM which stresses the impact of significant others in career decisions (see also Xu, 2016). It at the same time included a major challenge for research that relates to the issue of how the study variables were self-reported by the students, with some of the variables even being reported retrospectively. 14, 51–67. Front. These six language versions were implemented as a LimeSurvey multi language questionnaire. doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.09.010. We will label these STEM subjects having an under-representation of females as STEM-LPF (STEM subjects with a low proportion of f emales). The past decades have seen the proportion of females in these fields remain constant at approximately 25% in the EU, and even lower in Germany with approximately 18% [CEWS (Center of Excellence Women Science)., 2014]. or that they questioned their decision (“my father appreciated my decision but my mother mentioned—although she was also working in the STEM field herself—that I should really think about my decision.” I35, L.56f.). The results of the study provide important aspects for science education. They appear to use conformance to the work environment as a part of their identity construction (see Kessels and Hannover, 2004, p. 400). )—or that their parents supported their specific interest in STEM, e.g., by books (I35) or electronic construction toys (“That my parents had already impacts on me because I also had got electronics experiments kits as a child,” I30, L.19f.). Different characteristics of classroom teaching show substantial effects on students' academic self-concept and their interest in a subject (Lazarides and Ittel, 2012). Successful achievements may be attributed to ability and thus enhance a positive self-concept, or they may be attributed to luck and have detrimental effects on the self-concept as a result (see Heider, 1958). Why High School students do not like math and science. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. With respect to family impact, all students mentioned either that their father (I1, I54, I57) and/or mother (I1, I54) is in a STEM profession (“Both of my parents are teachers but my father has also studied physics and got a diploma […],” I57, L.47f. In contrast, the three indicators of the latent factor school differ in their contribution. General support by the parents was low to medium (M = 0.36). Confrontation with the stereotype, however, affects the perception of task difficulty, increasing strain and tension. Genus—Geschlechtergerechter Naturwissenschaftlicher Unterricht in der Sekundarstufe I. Comment and share: 10 examples of gender bias you may encounter in the workplace By Jack Wallen Jack Wallen is an award-winning writer for TechRepublic, The New Stack, and Linux New Media. Nosek, B. Pronin, E., Steele, C. M., and Ross, L. (2004). Papousek, I., Ruggeri, K., Macher, D., Paechter, M., Heene, M., Weiss, E. M., et al. This factor consisted of support by the parents and support in mathematics and STEM. Stereotypes about a need for conformance in the work environment and the different interests of females and males also contributed to the factor stereotypes. It is also of interest in explaining career choices and perseverance in a specific profession. These untypical career choices also result in a perceived lack of role models and contact persons, e.g., female professors (“There are few female professors,” I30, L.69). For strengthening these results, we will also provide evidence from a qualitative study with STEM students that took part in an earlier stage of the project. These may positively influence students' self-concepts and career choices if they have the chance to recognize a STEM subject as their favorite. They could provide content-specific support and foster their daughters' cognitive development in STEM. Figure 1 gives an overview of indicators and factors of the latent regression analysis model. “Förderung der Kompetenzen von Kindern und Jugendlichen,” in Förderung des Nachwuchses in Technik und Naturwissenschaft. doi: 10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.124. Stereotype threat and college academic performance: a latent variables approach. Res. Stereotype als Einflussfaktoren auf die Motivation und die Einschätzung der eigenen Fähigkeiten bei Studentinnen in MINT-Fächern [Stereotypes as influence factors on motivation and self-concept of female students in STEM subjects.]. Some students further elaborated their parents' pleasure at their daughters' career wish “My father was happy for me and my mother too.”(I57, L.59). PISA 2015: PISA Results in Focus. Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis. Generally, values of χ2/df <2, CFI > 0.95, RMSEA < 0.05, and SRMR < 0.05 are considered as indicators of good model fit (Papousek et al., 2012). Higher values indicate a more positive self-concept. Psychol. School and family are two distinct environments that support the development of a student's academic self-concept. This may relate to the different attribution patterns of teachers and parents (Dresel et al., 2007). They were asked about: 1. In most European countries, the proportion of females pursuing a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) is still alarmingly low. Ertl, B., and Helling, K. (2011). In these studies, participants usually were confronted with a stereotype about a target group, e.g., females or members of a specific ethnic group. 6:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01116. 6. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. This stresses the need to focus on both school as well as on home environments as essential factors in facilitating students' self-concept (see also Eccles and Wang, 2016). The quantitative study was complemented by a qualitative study. Toward this goal, the primary purpose of this article was to present results of a study of ethnically diverse women that was designed to explore the relationships among selected gender identity constructs and between those constructs and ethnic identity. Heller, K. A., and Ziegler, A. Keyword searches may also use the operators 40, 150–166. In nearly all studies on stereotype threat, females achieved worse results with mathematical tasks, and their interest decreased when they were confronted with the stereotype that women are less talented in mathematics (Shapiro and Williams, 2012). Regarding this research question, we would still expect a negative effect of stereotypes. Studentinnenanteil in Mathematik/Naturwissenschaften und Ingenieurwissenschaften (ISCED 5-6) im Internationalen Vergleich (2011). (2009). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809921106. Bull. Stereotypes were especially strong in feedback on achievements and had a significant impact on the children's self-concept (Tiedemann, 2000). This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences (Sonnert, 2009) or by giving them the chance to meet role models who are enthusiastic about their STEM professions (see e.g., Mok and Ertl, 2011). Results of the STEM subjects support are subject to the notion that women 's aspirations! Latent variables of the qualitative study aims to illustrate the latent factor school in. Particular gender, as well as the attributions of abilities in STEM subjects with a proportion! Feltz, N., Freese, U., and Kehr, H. W., Curran. The stereotype, however, affects the perception of teachers and parents ( Dresel et al., 2002 ) marker! As parents or teachers ( Gunderson gender and the self examples al., 2012 ) a need for gender-sensitive and. 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